domenica 12 ottobre 2014

Perché siamo "solo" 49esimi al mondo in competitività ? ... cosa scende e cosa sale.

1st Pillar: Public Institution
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Property rights
59
69
69
71
69
67
74
Intellectual property protection
42
50
61
59
62
67
70
Ethnics and corruption
-
-
-
-
-
-
102
Diversion of public funds
74
84
77
72
85
93
95
Public trust of politicians
92
107
110
127
131
140
139
Irregular payments and bribes
-
-
73
64
68
74
74
Judicial independence
78
93
81
60
68
70
70
Favoritism in decisions of government officials
91
102
115
119
116
126
135
Wastefulness government spending
128
121
108
114
126
139
139
Burden of government regulation
130
128
133
140
142
146
142
Efficiency legal framework in settling disputes
114
128
129
133
139
145
143
Efficiency legal framework in challenging regs
114
116
122
125
131
134
135
Transparency government policymaking
111
109
119
135
139
140
143
Gov’t services for improved business performance
-
-
-
-
123
-
143
Business costs of terrorism
79
70
73
75
62
64
54
Business costs of crime and violence
73
88
92
88
91
81
81
Organized crime
124
127
130
132
131
134
132
Reliability of police services
54
50
44
38
38
38
42
Ethical behavior of firms
78
93
82
79
90
103
105
Strength auditing and reporting standards
85
101
111
92
103
110
99
Efficacy of corporate boards
117
121
126
120
134
137
121
Protection minority shareholders’ interests
110
124
128
112
122
133
127
Strength of investor protection
-
-
45
47
52
41
45
.
2nd Pillar: Infrastructure
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Quality of overall infrastructure
73
72
73
79
82
53
56
Quality of roads
55
53
54
59
57
55
57
Quality of railroad infrastructure
52
45
39
43
40
29
29
Quality of port infrastructure
95
83
81
81
89
67
55
Quality of air transport infrastructure
78
85
84
71
67
73
70
Available seat kilometers
13
15
14
14
15
18
18
Quality of electricity supply
48
45
47
42
38
36
35
Fixed Telephone lines
20
34
33
33
12
14
15
Mobile telephone subscriptions
-
-
9
23
35
31
33
.
3rd Pillar: Macroeconomic stability
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Government surplus/deficit
86
85
66
85
86
80
77
National savings rate
82
82
95
94
88
85
84
Inflation, annual % change
21
15
29
1
25
60
1
Interest rate spread
104
94
27
92
-
-
-
Government debt
123
128
131
138
140
144
139
Country credit rating
-
-
25
28
40
40
-
.
4th Pillar: Health and primary education
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Business impact of malaria
28
1
1
1
1
1
24
Malaria incidence
1
1
1
1
1
1
-
Business impact of tuberculosis
13
15
20
26
22
25
18
Tuberculosis incidence
13
14
19
16
9
4
21
Business impact of HIV/AIDS
31
31
36
37
33
39
28
HIV prevalence
74
74
77
69
68
78
75
Infant mortality
10
3
11
16
11
14
15
Life expectancy
5
3
4
8
4
6
3
Quality of primary education
45
49
47
42
41
40
34
Primary education enrollment rate
12
13
20
21
35
40
42
Education expenditure
55
65
-
-
-
-
-
.
5th Pillar: Higher education and training
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Secondary enrollment
26
22
24
24
31
38
33
Tertiary enrollment
19
19
20
22
23
28
35
Quality of the educational system
84
87
83
88
87
72
67
Quality of math and science education
69
83
82
74
65
61
45
Quality of management schools
61
46
38
35
35
31
26
Internet access in schools
65
68
85
79
86
96
91
Local availability of research and training services
35
43
37
31
33
32
30
Extent of staff training
109
118
127
120
123
130
133
.
6th Pillar: Goods market efficiency
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Domestic Competition
-
-
-
-
-
-
101
Intensity of local competition
104
103
84
58
67
73
58
Extent of market dominance
30
30
16
10
16
15
8
Effectiveness of anti-monopoly policy
59
76
93
86
100
103
100
Extent and effect of taxation
129
126
133
139
141
146
143
Total tax rate
121
120
126
132
133
138
134
N. of procedures required to start a business
58
26
34
34
47
47
57
Time required to start a business
24
25
34
13
16
18
21
Agricultural policy costs
94
66
52
64
88
112
110
Foreign competition
-
-
-
-
-
-
109
Prevalence of trade barriers
46
53
41
40
47
67
79
Trade-weighted tariff rate
5
5
4
4
6
4
5
Prevalence of foreign ownership
106
112
112
108
118
130
123
Business impact of rules on FDI
122
123
118
118
126
139
138
Burden of customs procedures
61
66
69
79
69
67
71
Imports as a percentage of GDP
-
-
-
117
115
125
122
Quality of demand conditions
-
-
-
-
-
-
37
Degree of customer orientation
58
62
55
56
53
48
43
Buyer sophistication
40
40
34
32
34
35
43
.
7th Pillar: Labor market efficiency
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Cooperation in labor-employer relations
126
123
121
118
127
136
137
Flexibility of wage determination
129
126
130
134
138
142
138
Non-wage labor costs
123
-
-
-
-
-
-
Effect of taxation on incentives to work
-
-
-
-
-
-
143
Efficient use of talent
-
-
-
-
-
-
130
Pay and productivity
-
-
-
-
-
-
139
Rigidity of employment
70
75
90
94
-
-
-
Hiring and firing practices
134
128
129
126
136
143
141
Firing costs
5
18
20
20
19
19
18
Pay and productivity
131
124
124
125
128
143
139
Reliance on professional management
117
120
119
110
113
121
122
Brain drain
71
91
92
105
115
-
-
Country capacity to retain talent
-
-
-
-
-
117
121
Country capacity to attract talent
-
-
-
-
-
126
128
Female participation in labor force
84
90
89
93
97
99
93
.
8th Pillar: Financial market sophistication
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Availability of financial services
70
67
82
67
62
71
77
Affordability of financial services
-
-
106
113
122
113
82
Financing through local equity market
74
74
73
63
71
88
81
Ease of access to loans
108
118
113
112
126
145
139
Venture capital availability
87
104
104
98
121
138
127
Restriction on capital flows
123
98
80
-
-
-
119
Strength of investor protection
39
42
-
-
-
-
-
Soundness of banks
79
69
57
45
66
88
93
Regulation of securities exchanges
73
76
72
63
70
96
84
Legal rights index
93
98
103
105
118
118
113
.
9th pillar: Technological readiness
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Availability of latest technologies
63
65
73
71
69
69
64
Firm-level technology absorption
76
87
102
102
104
112
106
Laws relating to ICT
52
63
-
-
-
-
-
FDI and technology transfer
103
106
112
116
122
127
128
Individual Internet users %
22
35
45
42
45
51
56
Broadband Internet subscribers
26
30
26
24
28
33
34
Int’l Internet bandwidth, kb/s per user
29
29
32
29
27
27
31
Mobile telephone subscribers
2
6
-
-
37
28
25
.
10th pillar: Market size
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Domestic market size
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
Foreign market size
12
13
14
15
14
15
15
Exports as a percentage of GDP
-
-
-
-
-
-
96
.
11th pillar: Business sophistication
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Local supplier quantity
27
22
13
11
17
14
10
Local supplier quality
26
34
35
28
28
27
26
State of cluster development
4
3
1
2
2
2
1
Nature of competitive advantage
14
12
11
7
11
11
6
Value chain breadth
13
14
12
11
12
20
19
Control of international distribution
30
40
43
50
58
39
37
Production process sophistication
25
28
27
28
28
27
28
Extent of marketing
35
49
47
47
51
60
63
Willingness to delegate authority
109
113
97
91
104
129
127
.
12th pillar: innovation
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Capacity for innovation
22
27
27
26
28
31
39
Quality of scientific research institutions
99
79
65
57
43
40
38
Company spending on R&D
51
42
39
34
32
38
35
University-industry research collaboration
77
69
70
79
65
59
59
Gov’t procurement of advanced tech products
117
120
117
114
121
129
130
Availability of scientists and engineers
45
39
54
52
45
29
23
Utility patents
25
25
25
25
24
24
26
.



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